Paragraphs & Topic Sentences
A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects. Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence.
A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement; it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information.
Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence. For example, you might be able to omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that narrates a series of events, if a paragraph continues developing an idea that you introduced (with a topic sentence) in the previous paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly refer—perhaps indirectly—to a main point. The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence.
Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.
Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.
Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information.
Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraph’s controlling idea.
The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In this paragraph the topic sentence and concluding sentence (CAPITALIZED) both help the reader keep the paragraph’s main point in mind.
SCIENTISTS HAVE LEARNED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SENSE OF SIGHT IN NUMEROUS WAYS. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle 200 inches in diameter, and with it see 2000 times farther into the depths of space. Or they look through a small pair of lenses arranged as a microscope into a drop of water or blood, and magnify by as much as 2000 diameters the living creatures there, many of which are among man’s most dangerous enemies. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. THUS ALMOST EVERY TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION YET DISCOVERED HAS BEEN USED TO EXTEND OUR SENSE OF SIGHT IN SOME WAY.
George Harrison, “Faith and the Scientist”
In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.
Along with the smooth flow of sentences, a paragraph’s coherence may also be related to its length. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short (only one or two sentences, perhaps), you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph.
A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below.
Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.
Create parallel structures. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences helps your reader see the connections between ideas. In the paragraph above about scientists and the sense of sight, several sentences in the body of the paragraph have been constructed in a parallel way. The parallel structures (which have been emphasized) help the reader see that the paragraph is organized as a set of examples of a general statement.
Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number. Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. If you shift from the more personal "you" to the impersonal “one,” from past to present tense, or from “a man” to “they,” for example, you make your paragraph less coherent. Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow.
Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitional expressions emphasize the relationships between ideas, so they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might otherwise miss or misunderstand. The following paragraph shows how carefully chosen transitions (CAPITALIZED) lead the reader smoothly from the introduction to the conclusion of the paragraph.
I don’t wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large-bodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, BUT I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular.
Stephen Jay Gould, “Were Dinosaurs Dumb?”
SOME USEFUL TRANSITIONS
(modified from Diana Hacker, A Writer’s Reference)
- To show addition:
- again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too
- To give examples:
- for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate
- To compare:
- also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly
- To contrast:
- although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet
- To summarize or conclude:
- all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up
- To show time:
- after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while
- To show place or direction:
- above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)
- To indicate logical relationship:
- accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus
Produced by Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
- Topic sentence. A topic sentence explains to the reader what the paragraph is about. It usually ties back to the bigger argument in some way, and it explains why the paragraph belongs in the essay. Sometimes a topic sentence might be 2 or even 3 sentences long, though it is usually just a single sentence.
- Evidence. Most body paragraphs in an argumentative paper include some kind of proof that your position is the correct one. This evidence can be all kinds of things: quotations, surveys, or even your own observations. Your paragraphs are where this evidence can be presented in a convincing way.
- Analysis. A good paragraph doesn't just present evidence. It also takes some time to explain why the evidence is worthwhile, what it means, and why it is better than other pieces of evidence out there. This is where your own analysis comes into play.
- Conclusions and transitions. After the analysis, a good paragraph will conclude by explaining why the paragraph is significant, how it fits in with the thesis of the essay, and will begin to set up the next paragraph.
Reread your thesis statement. If you are writing an argumentative essay, each paragraph should help further your overarching claim. Before you can write an argumentative paragraph, you must have your thesis statement firmly in mind. A thesis statement is a 1-3 sentence description of what you are arguing and why it is important. Are you arguing that all Americans should use energy-efficient bulbs in their homes? Or are you arguing that all citizens should have the freedom to choose which products they buy? Make sure you have a clear idea of your argument before you begin writing.
Write the evidence and analysis first. Often it is easier to start writing in the middle of an argumentative paragraph instead of at the beginning of the paragraph. If you are stressing out about starting a paragraph from the beginning, tell yourself that you will focus on the part of the paragraph that is easiest to write: the evidence and analysis. Once you have finished the more straightforward component of a paragraph, you can move on to the topic sentence.
List all the evidence that supports your thesis statement. No matter what kind of argument you are making, you will have to use evidence in order to convince your reader that you are correct. Your evidence could be many things: historical documentation, quotations from experts, results from a scientific study, a survey, or your own observations. Before you proceed with your paragraph, list out every piece of evidence that you think supports your claim.
- If they share common themes or ideas
- If they share a common source (such as the same document or study)
- If they share a common author
- If they are the same type of evidence (such as two surveys that demonstrate similar results)
- You must define any key terms or jargon that might be unfamiliar to your reader. (What)
- You must provide any key dates and locations, if relevant (such as where a historical document was signed). (When/Where)
- You must describe how evidence was obtained. For example, you might want to explain the methods of a scientific study that provided you with your evidence. (How)
- You must explain who provided you with your evidence. Do you have a quotation from an expert? Why is this person considered knowledgeable about your topic? (Who)
- You must explain why you think this evidence is important or notable. (Why)
- What is it that ties this evidence together?
- How does this evidence help prove my thesis?
- Are there any counterpoints or alternative explanations I should keep in mind?
- What makes this evidence stand out? Is there anything special or interesting about it?
- "The high ratings that Charlie Brown television specials have garnered for decades demonstrate the influence of this character."
- "Some people contend that superheroes such as Superman are more important than Charlie Brown. However, studies show that most Americans identify more readily with the hapless Charlie than with the powerful, alien Superman."
- "Media historians point to Charlie Brown's catchphrases, distinctive appearance, and sage wisdom as reasons why this character is beloved by adults and children alike."
- If there are too many ideas, you may need to break up the paragraph into two separate paragraphs.
- Be sure that your topic sentence isn't simply a restatement of the thesis itself. Each paragraph should have a distinct, unique topic sentence. If you are simply restating "Charlie Brown is important" at the beginning of each body paragraph, you will have to narrow down your topic sentences more thoroughly.
Conclude your paragraph. Unlike full essays, not every paragraph will have a full conclusion. However, it can be effective to devote a sentence to tying up the loose ends of your paragraph and emphasizing how your paragraph has just contributed to your thesis. You want to do this economically and quickly. Write one final sentence that bolsters your argument before moving on to the next set of ideas. Some key words and phrases to use in a concluding sentence include "Therefore," "Ultimately," "As you can see," and "Thus."
- When you begin to discuss a different theme or topic
- When you begin to address contrasting ideas or counterarguments
- When you address a different type of evidence
- When you discuss a different time period, generation, or person
- When your current paragraph is becoming unwieldy. If you have too many sentences in your paragraph, you may have too many ideas. Either cut your paragraph into two, or edit down your writing to make it more readable.